Efektywna stopa procentowa

Efektywna roczna stopa procentowa (ERSP) to wskaźnik określający o ile procent powiększy się nasz depozyt w zależności od ilości i częstości kapitalizacji odsetek. Lokata roczna o nominalnym oprocentowaniu 5% będzie miała ERSP równy 5% tylko w sytuacji, gdy kapitalizacja następuje raz – po zakończeniu okresu lokaty.

Roczna lokata 5% o codziennej kapitalizacji odsetek będzie miała ERSP równe 5,13%. Sytuacja taka wynika z faktu, że odsetki z codziennych kapitalizacji doliczane są do kapitału i w następnych dniach także one procentują, powiększając finalny zysk.

Obliczenie efektywnej stopy pozwala ocenić, która z lokat o porównywalnych parametrach będzie najlepsza. Generalna zasada jest taka: im więcej kapitalizacji w danym okresie tym wyższe będzie oprocentowanie efektywne. Wynika z tego, że lepsze byłyby cztery kolejne lokaty 3-miesięczne niż jedna 12 miesięczna. W takim przypadku lokaty 3-miesięczne musiałyby się jednak odnawiać na takich samych warunkach, a nie ma żadnej gwarancji, że w chwili kolejnych odnowień oprocentowanie nie będzie niższe.

Obliczanie efektywnej stopy procentowej jest zbędne w sytuacji, gdy kapitalizacja jest tylko jedna – po zakończeniu okresu lokaty. W takiej sytuacji zawsze oprocentowanie efektywne będzie równe nominalnemu.

Niestety efektywną stopę procentową podaje niewielkie banków. Zazwyczaj trzeba obliczyć ją samodzielnie, ale być może kiedyś doczekamy się w tej kwestii uregulowań prawnych – jak to ma miejsce w przypadku podawania rzeczywistego oprocentowania kredytów.

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